Pupils and master artists

Once the database had enough objects to created views by artists the first thing that stood out was that there appeared to be an a-typical variety in the handwriting and the way monogram and Lazarus gate logo were drawn for some artists. It was well documented that artists did sign for each other, e.g. as one did not reach the quota to receive his/her full pay. But this appeared more widespread and the “own” way of signing by the artist stood out from pieces signed with his/her monogram but in multiple different hands. 

The working hypothesis is that young local pupils hired in the c.1899 to c. 1904 period were tasked to detail objects where the outline of the composition and possibly some details were already set up by a master painter. Considering the wide range of complicated decors the outlining required more skill than the filling in of the colours. The co-operation between master artist and pupil would have increased productivity and lower costs. Only in later years did PZH introduce perforated stencils to transfer the design on the biscuit and colour cards to show the colours to be used.  

This is still research in progress. The below table shows the first attempt the compare the objects we suspect are signed by pupils against the markings from master artists whose monogram were used and examples of markings from the pupils signed with their own monogram (where available). First indicatie is that up to 1/3 of the objects from the period were signed by pupils, even an higher percentage for wall plates. For some pupils like Lambertus Kwinkelenberg and Adrianus Quint the similarities between their markings as pupils and as independent artist are very clear, in some other cases it needs more interpretation. 

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Object likely signed by pupil

Pupil own markings

Master own markings

1007
Signed by A Kok
Kok, Adrianus
Lanooy, Chris
1027
Signed by A Quint
Quint , Adrianus
Kool, Johannes
1065
Signed by L Kwinkelenberg
Kwinkelenberg, Lambertus
Vries, Johannes de
1073
Signed by A Kok
Kok, Adrianus
Leeuwendal, Theodorus
1110
Signed by Pupil Madein
No own work known
Woerlee, Piet
1134
Signed by A Kok
Kok, Adrianus
Bordewijk, Dirk
1179
Signed by A Quint
Quint , Adrianus
Lansaat, Adrianus
1195
Signed by Unknown Pupil 4
No own work known
Hartgring, Johannes
1203
Signed by Unknown Pupil 4
No own work known
Stam, Johannes
1205
Signed by Pupil wall plates
No own work known
Kool, Johannes
1206
Signed by A Quint
Quint , Adrianus
Kool, Johannes
1210
Signed by A Kok
Kok, Adrianus
Bordewijk, Dirk
1502
Signed by Pupil wall plates
No own work known
Lansaat, Adrianus
1506
Signed by Pupil Madein
No own work known
Houdijck, Hendrikus
1515
Signed by Pupil green Gouda
No own work known
Heidt, Michel van der
1519
Signed by Pupil green Gouda
No own work known
Lansaat, Adrianus
1523
Signed by Pupil Madein
No own work known
JR: No name known as yet
1524
Signed by A Quint
Quint , Adrianus
Fonville, Franciscus
1525
Signed by Pupil Madein
No own work known
Houdijck, Hendrikus
1528
Signed by A Quint
Quint , Adrianus
Muijen Cornelis van
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